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History of related terminologies


Electric stone

Tourmaline was named as "Electric stone" by Linnaeus Carolus (1707-1778).


The Sinhalese word "Turamali" became "Tourmaline" in 1703 and was adopted as the scientific name. All the electric stones were called as "Schrol" until that year, while only opaque ones are now called so. (1)

(1) Encyclopedia of science and technology (Middle) P.1904-1905 Translated by Jiro Ohta, Asakura Publishing Co., Ltd.


Brewster named electric charge generated when heat is applied as "Pyroelectricity" in his paper published in 1824 (2).

(2) Brewster,D.,1824,Pogg.Ann.,Bd.2,ss.297-307

[Please note]
There is sparse information about research history of the pyroelectricity/piezoelectricity effects caused by tourmaline. We refer to and quote from this literature as the events are presented in chronological order.
The history of Pyro-Piezoelectricity in the Eighteenth and the Nineteenth Century (Japanese version only)
·Journal Title: Papers of Technical Meeting on History of Electrical Engineering, IEE Japan(2000)


Hankel named electricity generated when pressure is applied as "Piezoelectricity" in 1881. This is because he believed the electricity had different characteristics from that generated without pressure. (3)

(3) Hankel,W.G.,1881,Abh.Saechs,Bd.12,ss.457-548

Author: Masaharu Nemoto
(Universal Plan Co., Ltd.)
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